Its area covers 4.74 percent of country's total area whereas its population accounts for 3.47 percent of the country's population.The average density of population is 269 per square kilometre as against average national figure of 382.The sex ratio of the state is 978 women per every 1000 men whereas at the all-India level it is 940.
About 85 percent of Odisha's population live in villages.The districts of Kandhamal,Mayurbhanj and Kalahandi are mostly rural having a rural population of about 94 percent.Only 15 percent of Odisha's inhabitants live in towns and cities.
The percentage of literacy in the state is 73.45 percent as per as the 2011 census.The state enlists 124 urban units including 102 statutory census towns.They have either a municipality or a N.A.C.Only seven cities have a population of one lakh and more.The work force of the state consists of 37.5 percent of population out of which 32.7 percent are main workers and 4.8 percent are marginal.The states are economy being primarily agriculture based,majority of the work force is composed of cultivators and agricultural labourers,their percentage being 42.2 and 28.9 respectively.The rest rae engaged in cottage industries and other occupations.
The coastal plains of Odisha stretch from Subarnarekha in the north to Rushikulya in the south. They are narrow in north, narrowest in the lake Chilika coast, board in the south and widest in the middle. The coastal plains are gift of six major rivers. They bring silt from their catchments. As a result from the depths of the Bay of Bengal this area is reclaimed. The rivers from north to south are Subarnarekh,Budhabalanga,Baitarani,Brahmani,Mahanadi and Rushikulya. The coastal plains can be termed as a land of six deltas of Subarnarekha and Budhabalanga which forms the middle coastal plains & the other combined deltas of Baitarani,Mahanadi,Brahmani and Rushikulya comes from the plains of south coast.
The mountains region of Odisha covers about three fourth area of the state. This region is a part of Indian peninsula. In this region data to be referred and broad valleys are cut by Baitarani,Brahmani,Mahanadi,Rushikulya & Vansadhara rivers. The valleys are fertile, well-drained and densely populated. Morphologically this region can be divided into followin units : (a) Simulia and Meghasan mountains (b) Baitarani and Brahmani interfluous (c) The water shed between Brahmani and Mahanadi (d) The water shed of Rushikulya and Vansadhara. The elevation ranges from 610 to 1068 metres.
The rolling uplands are lower in Elevation than the plateaus. They vary from 153 to 305 metres. They are the result of continued river action, and rich in soil nutrients. They are situated in in the Koelsankh basin of upper Brahmani in the IB, Suktel and Tel in the middle Mahanadi and the sabari basins. The rolling uplands can be grouped as follows : the Rajgangpur, the Jharsuguda uplands, the Bargarh uplands, the Bolangir-Titlagarh-Patnagarh uplands, the Bhawanipatna uplands, the Malkanagiri uplands and the Rairangpur uplands. River valleys are net product of the action of rivers. They are fertile and at times present an undulating topography. The major river valleys of Odisha are associated with the Brahmani, Mahanadi and vansadhara rivers. The subdued plateaus where elevation varies from 305 to 610 metres reveal all the peculiarities of peninsular Tablelands. They are almost flat and the monotony of orography is interrupted by the river valleys. These features are commonly met within the upper Baitarani and Sabari basins of Keonjhar and Koraput districts respectively. In these uplands sheet erosion is most common while gullying is confined to the river valleys. These erosion refer data plateaus can be divided into Panposh-Keonjhar -Pallahara plateais and Nawarangpur-Jeypore plateaus.